Rough-House Journalism in 18th-Century Sheffield

In the final years of the 18th century the editors of two of Sheffield’s most radical newspapers put everything on the line to stand up for the citizens of their city. Fearing that the actions of their monarchy and government represented a shift towards tyranny and a general lack of interest in the welfare of British citizens outside of London, Joseph Gales and James Montgomery took to the press to hold their government to account.

JM Young Portait in Shef and Roth Independent 1861

Portrait printed in the ‘Sheffield and Rotherham Independent’ (1861)

In the pages of the Sheffield Register (1787-1794) and the Sheffield Iris (1794-1825) Gales and Montgomery campaigned for fair treatment from local and national authorities whilst also ensuring that all Sheffield citizens were aware of their rights and constitutional entitlements.

As Gales himself stated in his final editorial, it was his paper’s ambition to ‘rescue my Countrymen from the darkness of ignorance and to awaken them to a sense of their privileges as human beings, and, as such, of their importance in the grand scale of creation.’ More than anything else, Gales wanted to prove to his readers their city mattered and that they deserved the respect and representation of their country’s leaders.

Writing under the close scrutiny of suspicious local authorities at a time of intense censorship both the Register and the Iris presented their most controversial material in verse rather than prose.

In a section referred to affectionately by contemporary readers as ‘Poetry Corner’, Gales and Montgomery provided a platform from local protest poets to express in incredible detail the attitudes and anxieties of their time. Reoccurring themes include the need for universal political representation and access to education, racial and religious equality, the abolition of slavery and the importance of worker’s rights.

Repository Man

‘The Repository of Genius’ as featured in ‘The Sheffield Register’ (1793)

Ironically, an overarching concern across many of these poems was that the freedom of the press might be in jeopardy. If the government cannot legally be criticized that there remain no safe-guard against tyranny, and as one reader contributed in April 1793, this seemed to be increasingly the case:

We may speak (it is true) if we mind what we say;
But to speak all we think, will not suit in our day:

These lines proved prophetic, with the Register coming to an abrupt close a few months later. Charged with ‘conspiracy against the government’ Gales was forced to abandon the paper to start a new life in America as a fugitive.

Gales_Joseph_Sr_State_Archives_N_53_15_522A

A portrait of Joseph Gales.

Fortunately, within three months the paper would be re-founded by the young James Montgomery as the Sheffield Iris. As a teenager Montgomery had fled from Scotland upon discovering that his parents aspired to move abroad and work as religious missionaries. He had intended to get to London and peruse a career as a poet, but after getting stranded in Rotherham he decided to apply for a job at the Register.

As a close friend of Gales and an acolyte of the Register’s politics, Montgomery worked fast and hard to rally funds and support for a new paper, the Sheffield Iris. This new paper would position itself as an explicit continuation of the Register’s ethos and vision.  For this, Montgomery was twice sent to prison for publishing allegedly treasonous material.

In 1795 Montgomery was hauled in front of a jury in Doncaster for printing and distributing a poem in support of the French, Britain’s enemies at the time. Montgomery’s lawyer proved that not only did Montgomery have no knowledge of the poem in question, but that it had actually been written ten years previously. Remarkably, Montgomery was still found guilty and sent to a prison in York.

Within 18 months of his release he would find himself back in that prison, this time for reporting that British soldiers had charged down a group of unarmed protesters in Sheffield. On the eve of this second trial Montgomery wrote to his close friend, local author John Aston, lamenting that it didn’t matter how strong a defence he presented, “the prosecution is levelled against the Iris; they are determined to crush it” [‘Letter to Joseph Aston’, Sheffield Archives: SLPS/37 (1) 4 (B)].

Sadly, the persecution of Montgomery was little more than history repeating, his sentiments recalling the final to be penned by his former mentor in the final editorial of the Sheffield Register: ‘It is, in these persecuting days, a sufficient crime to have printed a newspaper which has so boldly dared to doubt the infallibility of ministers, and to investigate the justice and policy of their measures.’


The post is adapted from a featured first published in the ‘Sheffield Star’ in April 2016. View the original article here

Find out more about the poems printed in Sheffield’s radical press by visiting Sheffield: Print, Protest, Poetry, 1790-1810.

Don’t miss James Montgomery: A Life of Activism, a life performance to be delivered at 12pm and 3pm on 25 September 2016, the final day of the University of Sheffield’s Festival of the Mind.


James Montgomery and the Sheffield Lit&Phil in Sheffield Archives

Spotlight on Sheffield Archives # 1

Throughout the summer and autumn of 2015 I undertook a huge scoping project at Sheffield Archives, looking to identify materials of interest to the Faculty of Arts and Humanities at the University of Sheffield. Now, as I look to help convert these findings into future research opportunities, I find myself in the unique and hugely privileged position of having so many incredible stories to tell!

In this new strand of posts on my blog I hope to give you a fleeting insight into the many remarkable wonders held at Sheffield Archives. If you feel inspired, I implore you, make an appointment at 52 Shoreham Street and see these treasures for yourself. 

Sheffield Archives

52 Shoreham Street, Sheffield Archives.


James Montgomery and the Papers of the Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society

For my first post I thought I’d share with you a collection that brings us very close to a burning interest of my own: the life and work of James Montgomery. Formed in 1822 the Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society (Lit&Phil for short) was a gentleman’s club dedicated to personal improvement and intellectual endeavour, where all topics were up for discussion except religion and politics.

Sheffield Archives holds a spectacular and immense collection, likely so extensive due to the Society’s antiquarian impulses and penchant for ever keeping one eye on posterity. This is a penchant personified by one of its central members: poet, writer, journalist, abolitionist and bona fide local legend James Montgomery (namesake of Montgomery Theatre, Montgomery Road and the full size Montgomery statue standing outside Sheffield Cathedral).

Montgomery Monument

James Montgomery Monument, currently located beside Sheffield Cathedral.

The collection holds notes, letters and lectures by founding members, who include not only Montgomery but also the extraordinary poet, scientist, geologist, philosopher and self-styled polymath Henry Clifford Sorby; a man who would eventually bankrupt himself buying a glass bottomed boat so he could catalogue the marine life dwelling amidst the rivers and water ways of rural Yorkshire.

Another founding member was John Holland, local poet and librarian for the society. There are also account books, minute books and over 70 years of diaries. Indeed, the diaries of founding member Thomas Ward deserve an archive all of their own, as Ward kept not only the pocket books that we have out today (for keeping track of appointments and important occasions), but he also wrote daily in a journal, keeping a discursive record of his life’s events.

Furthermore, the books themselves are fascinating insights into the expected priorities of the 19th-century gentleman living in Sheffield. If you turn to the contents page of Ward’s branded Daily Journal or Gentleman’s Merchants and Tradesman’s Complete Annual Account Book of 1800 (to give it its full title) you get an insight into what it was that working gentlemen were expected to know: a list of bankers, a table of exchange rates, times of sunrise and sunset, instructions for writing a will, the names of MPs in the house of commons and the house of lords and the distances of towns from the Thames. How times change.


Please feel free to get in touch to discuss any academic research opportunities that might arise from working further with these collections. 

Click here to read more about my work on James Montgomery.